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Glossary Of Environmental Science Terms Pdf Free

 
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Environmental..Science:..A..Global..Concern,..7/e...abundanceThe.number.or.amount.of.something.acid.precipitationAcidic.rain,.snow,.or.dry.particles.deposited.from.the.air.due.to.increased.acids.released.by.anthropogenic.or.natural.resources.acidsSubstances.that.release.hydrogen.ions.(protons).in.water.active.solar.systemA.mechanical.system.that.actively.collects,.concentrates,.and.stores.solar.energy.acute.povertyInsufficient.income.or.access.to.resources.needed.to.provide.the.basic.necessities.for.life.such.as.food,.shelter,.sanitation,.clean.water,.medical.care,.and.education.adaptive.managementA.management.plan.designed.from.the.outset.to."learn.by.doing,".and.to.actively.test.hypotheses.and.adjust.treatments.as.new.information.becomes.available.administrative.courtsCourts.that.hear.enforcement.cases.for.agencies.or.consider.appeals.to.agency.rules.administrative.lawExecutive.orders,.administrative.rules.and.regulations,.and.enforcement.decisions.by.administrative.agencies.and.special.administrative.courts.aerobicLiving.or.occurring.only.in.the.presence.of.oxygen.aerosolsMinute.particles.or.liquid.droplets.suspended.in.the.air.aesthetic.degradationChanges.in.environmental.quality.that.offend.our.aesthetic.senses.albedoA.description.of.a.surface's.reflective.properties.ambient.airThe.air.immediately.around.us.amino.acidAn.organic.compound.containing.an.amino.group.and.a.carboxyl.group;.amino.acids.are.the.units.or.building.blocks.that.make.peptide.and.protein.molecules.anaerobic.respirationThe.incomplete.intracellular.breakdown.of.sugar.or.other.organic.compounds.in.the.absence.of.oxygen.that.releases.some.energy.and.produces.organic.acids.and/or.alcohol.anemiaLow.levels.of.hemoglobin.due.to.iron.deficiency.or.lack.of.red.blood.cells.annualA.plant.that.lives.for.a.single.growing.season.anthropocentricThe.belief.that.humans.hold.a.special.place.in.nature;.being.centered.primarily.on.humans.and.human.affairs.appropriate.technologyTechnology.that.can.be.made.at.an.affordable.price.by.ordinary.people.using.local.materials.to.do.useful.work.in.ways.that.do.the.least.possible.harm.to.both.human.society.and.the.environment.aquifersPorous,.water-bearing.layers.of.sand,.gravel,.and.rock.below.the.earth's.surface;.reservoirs.for.groundwater.arbitrationA.formal.process.of.dispute.resolution.in.which.there.are.stringent.rules.of.evidence,.cross-examination.of.witnesses,.and.a.legally.binding.decision.made.by.the.arbitrator.that.all.parties.must.obey.arithmetic.growthA.pattern.of.growth.that.increases.at.a.constant.amount.per.unit.time,.such.as.1,.2,.3,.4.or.1,.3,.5,.7.artesian.wellThe.result.of.a.pressurized.aquifer.intersecting.the.surface.or.being.penetrated.by.a.pipe.or.conduit,.from.which.water.gushes.without.being.pumped;.also.called.a.spring.asthmaA.distressing.disease.characterized.by.shortness.of.breath,.wheezing,.and.bronchial.muscle.spasms.atmospheric.depositionSedimentation.of.solids,.liquids,.or.gaseous.materials.from.the.air.atomThe.smallest.unit.of.matter.that.has.the.characteristics.of.an.element;.consists.of.three.main.types.of.subatomic.particles:.protons,.neutrons,.and.electrons.atomic.numberThe.characteristic.number.of.protons.per.atom.of.an.element..description..The..requested..resource..(/greenstone3/sites/localsite/collect/peacelan/index/assoc/HASH019d/5b6b7c63.dir/doc.pdf%3Bjsessionid%3D7F53E12CAEC3CD0FA201BEDEF9E12AA3)..is..not..available...This..is..the..basis..for..the..capitalist..market..system.clear-cutCutting..every..tree..in..a..given..area,..regardless..of..species..or..size;..an..appropriate..harvest..method..for..some..species;..can..be..destructive..if..not..carefully..controlled.climateA..description..of..the..long-term..pattern..of..weather..in..a..particular..area.climax..communityA..relatively..stable,..long-lasting..community..reached..in..a..successional..series;..usually..determined..by..climate..and..soil..type.closed..canopyA..forest..where..tree..crowns..spread..over..20..percent..of..the..ground;..has..the..potential..for..commercial..timber..harvests.cloud..forestsHigh..mountain..forests..where..temperatures..are..uniformly..cool..and..fog..or..mist..keeps..vegetation..wet..all..the..time.coal..gasificationThe..heating..and..partial..combustion..of..coal..to..release..volatile..gases,..such..as..methane..and..carbon..monoxide;..after..pollutants..are..washed..out,..these..gases..become..efficient,..clean-burning..fuel.coal..washingCoal..technology..that..involves..crushing..coal..and..washing..out..soluble..sulfur..compounds..with..water..or..other..solvents.Coastal..Zone..Management..ActLegislation..of..1972..that..gave..federal..money..to..30..seacoast..and..Great..Lakes..states..for..development..and..restoration..projects.co-compostingMicrobial..decomposition..of..organic..materials..in..solid..waste..into..useful..soil..additives..and..fertilizer;..often,..extra..organic..material..in..the..form..of..sewer..sludge,..animal..manure,..leaves,..and..grass..clippings..are..added..to..solid..waste..to..speed..the..process..and..make..the..product..more..useful.coevolutionThe..process..in..which..species..exert..selective..pressure..on..each..other..and..gradually..evolve..new..features..or..behaviors..as..a..result..of..those..pressures.cogenerationThe..simultaneous..production..of..electricity..and..steam..or..hot..water..in..the..same..plant.cold..frontA..moving..boundary..of..cooler..air..displacing..warmer..air.coliform..bacteriaBacteria..that..live..in..the..intestines..(including..the..colon)..of..humans..and..other..animals;..used..as..a..measure..of..the..presence..of..feces..in..water..or..soil.commensalismA..symbiotic..relationship..in..which..one..member..is..benefited..and..the..second..is..neither..harmed..nor..benefited.common..lawThe..body..of..court..decisions..that..constitute..a..working..definition..of..individual..rights..and..responsibilities..where..no..formal..statutes..define..these..issues.communal..resource..management..systemsResources..managed..by..a..community..for..long-term..sustainability.competitive..exclusionA..theory..that..no..two..populations..of..different..species..will..occupy..the..same..niche..and..compete..for..exactly..the..same..resources..in..the..same..habitat..for..very..long.complexity..(ecological)The..number..of..species..at..each..trophic..level..and..the..number..of..trophic..levels..in..a..community.compostingThe..biological..degradation..of..organic..material..under..aerobic..(oxygen-rich)..conditions..to..produce..compost,..a..nutrient-rich..soil..amendment..and..conditioner.compoundA..molecule..made..up..of..two..or..more..kinds..of..atoms..held..together..by..chemical..bonds.condensationThe..aggregation..of..water..molecules..from..vapor..to..liquid..or..solid..when..the..saturation..concentration..is..exceeded.condensation..nucleiTiny..particles..that..float..in..the..air..and..facilitate..the..condensation..process.conifersNeedle-bearing..trees..that..produce..seeds..in..cones.conservation..developmentConsideration..of..landscape..history,..human..culture,..topography,..and..ecological..values..in..subdivision..design.......Using.cluster.housing,.zoning,.covenants,.and.other.design.features,.at.least.half.of.a.subdivision.can.be.preserved.as.open.space,.farmland,.or.natural.areas.conservation.of.matterIn.any.chemical.reaction,.matter.changes.form;.it.is.neither.created.nor.destroyed.conspicuous.consumptionA.term.coined.by.economist.and.social.critic.Thorstein.Veblen.to.describe.buying.things.we.don't.want.or.need.to.impress.others.consumerAn.organism.that.obtains.energy.and.nutrients.by.feeding.on.other.organisms.or.their.remains..type..Status..report...William...P....Cunningham,.University.of.MinnesotaMary.Ann.Cunningham,.Vassar.CollegeBarbara.Woodworth.Saigo,.St..See.also.heterotroph.consumptionThe.fraction.of.withdrawn.water.that.is.lost.in.transmission.or.that.is.evaporated,.absorbed,.chemically.transformed,.or.otherwise.made.unavailable.for.other.purposes.as.a.result.of.human.use.contour.plowingPlowing.along.hill.contours;.reduces.erosion.control.rodsNeutron-absorbing.material.inserted.into.spaces.between.fuel.assemblies.in.nuclear.reactors.to.regulate.fission.reaction.convection.currentsRising.or.sinking.air.currents.that.stir.the.atmosphere.and.transport.heat.from.one.area.to.another..

Compare.with.environmental.resistance.birth.controlAny.method.used.to.reduce.births,.including.celibacy,.delayed.marriage,.contraception;.devices.or.medication.that.prevent.implantation.of.fertilized.zygotes,.and.induced.abortions.black.lung.diseaseInflammation.and.fibrosis.caused.by.accumulation.of.coal.dust.in.the.lungs.or.airways..Apache..Tomcat/7.0.26...Convection...currents...also...occur...in...water;...see...spring...overturn.cool...desertsDeserts...such...as...the...American...Great...Basin...characterized...by...cold...winters...and...sagebrush.coral...reefsProminent...oceanic...features...composed...of...hard,...limy...skeletons...produced...by...coral...animals;...usually...formed...along...edges...of...shallow,...submerged...ocean...banks...or...along...shelves...in...warm,...shallow,...tropical...seas.coreThe...dense,...intensely...hot...mass...of...molten...metal,...mostly...iron...and...nickel,...thousands...of...kilometers...in...diameter...at...the...earth's...center.core...regionThe...primary...industrial...region...of...a...country;...usually...located...around...the...capital...or...largest...port;...has...both...the...greatest...population...density...and...the...greatest...economic...activity...of...the...country.Coriolis...effectThe...influence...of...friction...and...drag...on...air...layers...near...the...earth;...deflects...air...currents...to...the...direction...of...the...earth's...rotation.cornucopian...fallacyThe...belief...that...nature...is...limitless...in...its...abundance...and...that...perpetual...growth...is...not...only...possible...but...essential.corridorA...strip...of...natural...habitat...that...connects...two...adjacent...nature...preserves...to...allow...migration...of...organisms...from...one...place...to...another.cost-benefit...analysisAn...evaluation...of...large-scale...public...projects...by...comparing...the...costs...and...benefits...that...accrue...from...them.cover...cropsPlants,...such...as...rye,...alfalfa,...or...clover,...that...can...be...planted...immediately...after...harvest...to...hold...and...protect...the...soil.criminal...lawA...body...of...court...decisions...based...on...federal...and...state...statutes...concerning...wrongs...against...persons...or...society.criteria...pollutantsSee...conventional...pollutants.critical...factorThe...single...environmental...factor...closest...to...a...tolerance...limit...for...a...given...species...at...a...given...time....See...limiting...factors.critical...thinkingAn...ability...to...evaluate...information...and...opinions...in...a...systematic,...purposeful,...efficient...manner.croplandsLands...used...to...grow...crops.crude...birth...rateThe...number...of...births...in...a...year...divided...by...the...midyear...population.crude...death...rateThe...number...of...deaths...per...thousand...persons...in...a...given...year;...also...called...crude...mortality...rate.crustThe...cool,...lightweight,...outermost...layer...of...the...earth's...surface...that...floats...on...the...soft,...pliable...underlying...layers;...similar...to...the..."skin"...on...a...bowl...of...warm...pudding.cultural...eutrophicationAn...increase...in...biological...productivity...and...ecosystem...succession...caused...by...human...activities.debt-for-nature...swapForgiveness...of...international...debt...in...exchange...for...nature...protection...in...developing...countries.deciduousTrees...and...shrubs...that...shed...their...leaves...at...the...end...of...the...growing...season.decline...spiralA...catastrophic...deterioration...of...a...species,...community,...or...whole...ecosystem;...accelerates...as...functions...are...disrupted...or...lost...in...a...downward...cascade.decomposersFungi...and...bacteria...that...break...complex...organic...material...into...smaller...molecules.deductive...reasoningDeriving...testable...predictions...about...specific...cases...from...general...principles.deep...ecologyA...philosophy...that...calls...for...a...profound...shift...in...our...attitudes...and...behavior...based...on...voluntary...simplicity;...rejection...of...anthropocentric...attitudes;...intimate...contact...with...nature;...decentralization...of...power;...support...for...cultural...and...biological...diversity;...a...belief...in...the...sacredness...of...nature;...and...direct...personal...action...to...protect...nature,...improve...the...environment,...and...bring...about...fundamental...societal...change.degradation...(of...water...resource)Deterioration...in...water...quality...due...to...contamination...or...pollution;...makes...water...unsuitable...for...other...desirable...purposes.Delaney...ClauseA...controversial...amendment...to...the...Federal...Food,...Drug,...and...Cosmetic...Act,...added...in...1958,...prohibiting...the...addition...of...any...known...cancer-causing...agent...to...processed...foods,...drugs,...or...cosmetics.deltaFan-shaped...sediment...deposit...found...at...the...mouth...of...a...river.demandThe...amount...of...a...product...that...consumers...are...willing...and...able...to...buy...at...various...possible...prices,...assuming...they...are...free...to...express...their...preferences.demanufacturingDisassembly...of...products...so...components...can...be...reused...or...recycled.demographic...transitionA...pattern...of...falling...death...rates...and...birthrates...in...response...to...improved...living...conditions;...could...be...reversed...in...deteriorating...conditions.demographyVital...statistics...about...people:...births,...marriages,...deaths,...etc.;...the...statistical...study...of...human...populations...relating...to...growth...rate,...age...structure,...geographic...distribution,...etc.,...and...their...effects...on...social,...economic,...and...environmental...conditions.denitrifying...bacteriaFree-living...soil...bacteria...that...converts...nitrates...to...gaseous...nitrogen...and...nitrous...oxide.dependency...ratioThe...number...of...nonworking...members...compared...to...working...members...for...a...given...population.desalinization...(or...desalination)Removal...of...salt...from...water...by...distillation,...freezing,...or...ultrafiltration.desertA...type...of...biome...characterized...by...low...moisture...levels...and...infrequent...and...unpredictable...precipitation....The.cycling.of.nitrogen,.carbon,.sulfur,.oxygen,.phosphorus,.and.water.are.examples.biogeographical.areaAn.entire.self-contained.natural.ecosystem.and.its.associated.land,.water,.air,.and.wildlife.resources.biological.communityThe.populations.of.plants,.animals,.and.microorganisms.living.and.interacting.in.a.certain.area.at.a.given.time.biological.controlsUse.of.natural.predators,.pathogens,.or.competitors.to.regulate.pest.populations.biological.or.biotic.factorsOrganisms.and.products.of.organisms.that.are.part.of.the.environment.and.potentially.affect.the.life.of.other.organisms.biological.oxygen.demand.(BOD)A.standard.test.for.measuring.the.amount.of.dissolved.oxygen.utilized.by.aquatic.microorganisms.biological.pestsOrganisms.that.reduce.the.availability,.quality,.or.value.of.resources.useful.to.humans.biological.resourcesThe.earth's.organisms.biomagnificationIncrease.in.concentration.of.certain.stable.chemicals.(for.example,.heavy.metals.or.fat-soluble.pesticides).in.successively.higher.trophic.levels.of.a.food.chain.or.web.biomassThe.total.mass.or.weight.of.all.the.living.organisms.in.a.given.population.or.area.biomass.fuelOrganic.material.produced.by.plants,.animals,.or.microorganisms.that.can.be.burned.directly.as.a.heat.source.or.converted.into.a.gaseous.or.liquid.fuel.biomass.pyramidA.metaphor.or.diagram.that.explains.the.relationship.between.the.amounts.of.biomass.at.different.trophic.levels.biomeA.broad,.regional.type.of.ecosystem.characterized.by.distinctive.climate.and.soil.conditions.and.a.distinctive.kind.of.biological.community.adapted.to.those.conditions.bioremediationUse.of.biological.organisms.to.remove.or.detoxify.pollutants.from.a.contaminated.area.biosphereThe.zone.of.air,.land,.and.water.at.the.surface.of.the.earth.that.is.occupied.by.organisms.biosphere.reservesWorld.heritage.sites.identified.by.the.IUCN.as.worthy.for.national.park.or.wildlife.refuge.status.because.of.high.biological.diversity.or.unique.ecological.features.biotaAll.organisms.in.a.given.area.bioticPertaining.to.life;.environmental.factors.created.by.living.organisms.biotic.potentialThe.maximum.reproductive.rate.of.an.organism,.given.unlimited.resources.and.ideal.environmental.conditions..message../greenstone3/sites/localsite/collect/peacelan/index/assoc/HASH019d/5b6b7c63.dir/doc.pdf%3Bjsessionid%3D7F53E12CAEC3CD0FA201BEDEF9E12AA3...Glossary..A-D...This..dreary..prophecy..has..led..economics..to..be..called.."the..dismal..science."direct..actionCivil..disobedience,..guerrilla..street..theater,..picketing,..protest..marches,..road..blockades,..demonstrations,..and..other..techniques..borrowed..from..the..civil..rights..movement..and..applied..to..environmental..protection.disability-adjusted..life..years..(DALY)A..measure..of..premature..deaths..and..losses..due..to..illnesses..and..disabilities..in..a..population.dischargeThe..amount..of..water..that..passes..a..fixed..point..in..a..given..amount..of..time;..usually..expressed..as..liters..or..cubic..feet..of..water..per..second.diseaseA..deleterious..change..in..the..body's..condition..in..response..to..destabilizing..factors,..such..as..nutrition,..chemicals,..or..biological..agents.dissolved..oxygen..(DO)..contentAmount..of..oxygen..dissolved..in..a..given..volume..of..water..at..a..given..temperature..and..atmospheric..pressure;..usually..expressed..in..parts..per..million..(ppm).diversity..(species..diversity,..biological..diversity)The..number..of..species..present..in..a..community..(species..richness),..as..well..as..the..relative..abundance..of..each..species.DNADeoxyribonucleic..acid;..the..long,..double-helix..molecule..in..the..nucleus..of..cells..that..contains..the..genetic..code..and..directs..the..development..and..functioning..of..all..cells.dominant..plantsThose..plant..species..in..a..community..that..provide..a..food..base..for..most..of..the..community;..they..usually..take..up..the..most..space..and..have..the..largest..biomass.downburstsSudden,..very..strong,..downdrafts..of..cold..air..associated..with..an..advancing..storm..front.drip..irrigationUses..pipe..or..tubing..perforated..with..very..small..holes..to..deliver..water..one..drop..at..a..time..directly..to..the..soil..around..each..plant.dry..alkali..injectionSpraying..dry..sodium..bicarbonate..into..flue..gas..to..absorb..and..neutralize..acidic..sulfur..compounds...

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